How to make holmium oxide?

Introduction to holmium oxide
Also known as holmium trioxide, the chemical formula is Ho2O3, which is the and and oxygen elements in the rare earth elements. In its natural state, holmium oxide often coexists with trivalent oxides of lanthanides and requires special methods to separate them. The appearance of holmium oxide changes significantly depending on the light conditions. It is light yellow under sunlight, and strong orange-red under the three primary color light sources, which is almost indistinguishable from erbium oxide under the same illumination, which is related to its sharp phosphorescent emission band.

Why is holmium oxide used in UV calibration?
It has been used as a wavelength standard for many years, and now we have expanded its use by creating a filled and sealed far-ultraviolet quartz cell that can be used in the ultraviolet spectrum. m provides sharp, stable peaks in the range of 219 to 650nm. Blank is measured for air blanks. Like most other rare earth element oxides, oxidation is used as specialty catalysts, phosphors and laser materials.

Brief introduction of typical extraction process of holmium oxide
The mineral is crushed and ground. The electromagnetic beneficiation method is repeatedly used to separate the holmium oxide from the lanthanum phosphate ore. After beneficiation, it is treated with hot concentrated sulfuric acid to produce sulfates of several rare earth elements that are soluble in water. The acidic filtrate is partially neutralized with sodium hydroxide to a pH between 3-4. Thorium will precipitate out as hydroxide. Then, the solution is treated with ammonium oxalate to convert the rare earth salt into insoluble oxalate. Through annealing, oxalate is converted into oxide, and the oxide is dissolved in nitric acid, and the oxide of the main component cerium is insoluble in nitric acid, thus separating the cerium.
The most efficient method to separate holmium oxide from rare earth elements is ion exchange. The rare earth ions are adsorbed on a suitable ion exchange resin, and then a suitable complexing agent, such as ammonium citrate or nitrilotriacetic acid, is used to selectively wash out the rare earth ions.

Application of holmium oxide
4% holmium oxide is dissolved in 10% perchloric acid and is permanently integrated into the quartz cuvette, which can be used as a standard for optical calibration. Holmium oxide can be used as a yellow and red colorant for Soviet diamonds and glass. Glass containing holmium oxide and holmium oxide solutions (usually perchloric acid solutions) have sharp absorption peaks in the spectrum of 200-900 nm, so they can be used as standards for spectrometer calibration and have been commercialized. Like other rare earth elements, holmium oxide is also used as a special catalyst, phosphor and laser material. The wavelength of holmium laser is about 2.08 μm, and it can be pulsed or continuous light. This laser is harmless to the eyes and can be used in medicine, optical radar, wind speed measurement and atmospheric monitoring.
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