Novel quantum effects are found in natural bilayer graphene, which is expected to promote the resear
Recently, the Bulgarian Gas Company said that Bulgaria is negotiating with Gazprom on resuming natural gas supply, and there is a possibility that Russia will resume natural gas supply to Bulgaria.
Since the outbreak of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the European Union has imposed several rounds of sanctions on Russia. Russian President signed a presidential decree on March 31, requiring "unfriendly" countries and regions to pay for Russian natural gas in rubles, otherwise gas supplies will be suspended. Bulgaria has been out of breath since the end of April for refusing to comply with the rouble settlement order. Affected by natural gas supply shortages and soaring energy costs, Bulgarian natural gas companies have applied to the Bulgarian government to raise Bulgarian natural gas prices by 60% in August, RIA Novosti reported.
On August 3, local time, the US Senate passed a resolution by a vote of 95 to 1, agreeing to the application of Finland and Sweden to join NATO.
NATO signed a protocol on the accession of Finland and Sweden to NATO on July 5. In accordance with the procedures, NATO members will examine and approve the protocol in accordance with their own procedures. The US House of Representatives passed a resolution supporting Finland and Sweden to join NATO on July 18. After it is passed by the Senate, the Biden administration will submit approval documents to NATO.
Because of the turbulent international situation, the supply and prices of many international bulk graphene powder are still very uncertain.
An international research team led by the University of Gottingen in Germany published a paper in the latest issue of the journal Nature that found novel quantum effects in their high-precision study of natural bilayer graphene and explained it in theory. This system is easy to prepare and provides new insights into the interaction between carriers and different phases, which is helpful to understand the processes involved and promote the development of quantum computers.
In 2004, two British scientists used a very simple experimental method to remove graphite sheets from graphite and obtained graphene, which consists of only one layer of carbon atoms, with the help of special tape. Graphene is one of the materials with the highest strength, which has good toughness, super thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, and has a broad application prospect. If the two layers of graphene are deflected from each other at a specific angle, the resulting system will even show superconductivity and other excited quantum effects, such as magnetism. But so far, it is difficult to prepare this kind of deflected bilayer graphene.
In the latest research, scientists used naturally formed bilayer graphene. They first used simple tape to separate graphene samples from a piece of graphite. In order to observe the quantum mechanical effect, a high electric field perpendicular to the sample is applied. They found that the electronic structure of the obtained system changed and the charge carriers with similar energy showed a strong cumulative effect.
It is further found that electrons in graphene can interact with each other at slightly above absolute zero (- 273.15 ℃), resulting in a variety of unexpected and complex quantum phases. If the interaction results in electron spin alignment, the material is magnetic without external influence. By changing the electric field, researchers can also constantly change the intensity of carrier interactions in bilayer graphene. In addition, the degree of freedom of electron motion will be limited under certain conditions, forming an electronic lattice, and due to mutual repulsion, it is no longer helpful to transfer charge, resulting in electrical insulation of the system.
Professor Thomas Weitz of the Department of Physics at the University of Gottingen said that one of the main advantages of the new system is that the preparation of materials is very simple, and researchers do not need to obtain the desired results at high temperatures as before. it can be used for further study of various quantum states and quantum computers.
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Against the backdrop of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine and Western sanctions imposed on Russia's natural gas exports, the price of natural gas and liquefied natural gas in the international market has soared, and the trend of returning to burning fuels such as oil and coal because natural gas cannot afford it has become increasingly prominent, Bloomberg reported recently. Data show that in early August, the price of natural gas on the international market was almost twice that of diesel, while the price of natural gas in Europe was almost three times that of high-sulfur fuel oil and propane. Industry insiders pointed out that many governments have recently announced that they will allow power stations to increase the use of oil and coal fuel because of concerns about the shortage of natural gas supply this winter. The International Energy Agency estimates that global oil demand will grow by 380000 barrels a day to 2.1 million barrels a day, based on the shift to oil in power stations and factories.
As the situation in the field of power generation varies from country to country, there are great differences in the extent to which countries use fuels such as oil and coal. Countries such as Pakistan and Bangladesh have large facilities that can switch between natural gas and fuel. In some countries, coal-fired and oil-fired power stations have been decommissioned for a long time, and the maintenance conditions of the equipment are different, so it is doubtful whether they can resume operation quickly.
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