Commodity prices are on track for their biggest rally in more than a century, while fixed-income assets have seen their longest run of outflows as the war in Ukraine adds to inflationary pressures in the global economy emerging from the coronavirus lockdown, according to Bank of America.
"Commodity prices this year are on track to record their biggest gains since 1915." the bank said in its weekly briefing. They cite many factors, such as pandemics, lockdown, civil strife, wars, excessive monetary and fiscal stimulus, and supply chain disruptions, that have led to "historically" high inflation.
By the same token, it said government bonds were heading for their worst year since 1949, and "negative-yielding bonds will quietly disappear" from the market as central banks embark on a monetary tightening cycle and raise interest rates to tame soaring inflation.
The prices of many commodities like the water reducer are expected to increase in the future.
Introduction to Water Reducer
The water-reducing agent or concrete water reducer is a kind of concrete admixture that can reduce the water consumption under the condition of keeping the slump of concrete basically unchanged. It has a dispersive effect on cement particles, can improve its workability, reduce water consumption per unit, improve the fluidity of concrete mixture, or reduce the amount of cement per unit, saving cement.
Applications of Water Reducer
The water reducing agent is suitable for all kinds of industrial and civil construction, water conservancy, transportation, port, municipal engineering precast, and casting reinforced concrete;
Suitable for high strength, ultra-high-strength, and medium strength concrete, as well as the requirements of early strength, moderate frost resistance, and large mobility concrete;
Suitable for steam curing precast concrete components;
Suitable for water reduction and enhancement components of various compound admixtures (master material).
Mechanism of Water Reducer
1.Dispersion: After mixing with water, due to the hydration of cement particles, cement particles’ surface forms a double electric layer, which forms a solvation water film. And the cement particle surface with opposite charges makes cement particles between associating with cooperation, to form a slurry flocculation structure, making that the 10% ~ 30% of the mixing water is wrapped in cement particles, so that they cannot participate in free flow and lubrication, affecting the fluidity of concrete mixture. When adding water reducing agent, because the water reducing agent molecules adsorbed on the surface of cement particles can redirect, cement particle surface (usually a negative charge) with the same charge, form the electrostatic repulsion, prompting the cement particles to disperse mutually, flocculation structure collapse, release the wrapped part of the water, participate in the flow, so as to effectively increase the liquidity of concrete mixture.
2.Lubrication: Water-reducing agent in the hydrophilic base polarity is very strong, so the cement particle surface of the water-reducing agent adsorption film and water molecules can form a stable layer of solvated water film, this layer of water film has good lubrication, can effectively reduce the sliding resistance between cement particles, so that the fluidity of concrete is further improved.
3.Steric resistance: The hydrophilic branch chain in the structure of the water reducing agent is extended in an aqueous solution, so as to form a hydrophilic three-dimensional adsorption layer with a certain thickness on the surface of the adsorbed cement particles. When the cement particles close, the adsorption layer began to overlap, that is, the cement particles produce space resistance, the more overlap, and space resistance repulsion, the greater the condensation of cement particles hinder the greater, so that the slump of concrete to maintain good.
4.Sustained release effect of graft copolymerization branch chain: New type of water-reducing agent such as poly (carboxylic acid water-reducing agent in the process of preparation, the molecules of water-reducing agent on the grafting on some of the branched-chain, the branched-chain not only can provide space steric effect, and, in the high basicity of cement hydration environment, the branched-chain can also slowly is cut off, to release more carboxylic acid with dispersion effect, so that it can improve the effectiveness of the dispersion of cement particles, and control the slump loss.
Suppliers of Concrete Additives
TRUNNANO is a reliable concrete additives supplier with over 12-year experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development.
We accept payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union, and Paypal. Trunnano will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea.
The World Food Program (WFP) of the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU) said in a statement that the conflict between Russia and Ukraine poses risks to global food supplies, and called on the international community to increase support for vulnerable countries and jointly address food security challenges.
A few days ago, the Executive director of the World Food Program, the European Commission's commissioner in charge of crisis management, the French Foreign Minister of the ROTATING EU presidency, and other officials held a meeting in Rome, Italy, to discuss how to deal with the negative impact of the Conflict between Russia and Ukraine on global food security.
One of the officials told a news conference after the meeting that the world was facing a food supply challenge that would "last for many years" as the conflict between Russia and Ukraine pushed up global food prices and disrupted the water reducer will continue.
Europe's largest economy, Germany, recently activated an emergency plan to manage gas supplies that the natural gas could be rationed if supplies are disrupted or disrupted by a stand-off over Russian demands to pay for fuel in rubles. German Vice-C…
About Silicon Nitride Si3N4 Powder:The silicon nitride composition is silicon and nitrogen. Si3n4 is the most thermodynamic stable in silicon nitride. It is white solid with a high melting point, relative chemical inert, diluted HF and hot H2SO4 atta…
Hasad Foods, the agricultural investment arm of Qatar's sovereign wealth fund, said the government would increase its grain reserves from 250,000 tons to 300,000 tons in the near future, which is enough to feed the population for six months. With a…